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To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. John MacDougall. Through the falsification of identity and exploitation of a predominantly underage source population, trafficking networks render their victims captive to inhumane conditions and abusive labour. In Indonesia, human trafficking has reached enormous proportions. As an archipelago with high rural-urban labour mobility, trafficking networks are able to prey upon young and poor migrant labourers in transit.
The affects of trafficking networks on the sex industry has by some indications, lowered the average age of high-end sex workers to illegal levels below 18 years old. Despite a relatively large population of underage and exploited trafficking victims, the numbers of trafficking cases that have gone to trial are surprisingly low. For this reason, IOM believed that additional research on trafficking in Indonesia was required to ascertain how to paralyze known trafficking networks.
Perhaps the greatest problem currently facing law enforcement bodies is that trafficking networks are very secretive and adept at working around government bodies and regulations. For instance, traffickers change the identities of their victims, making it difficult for police to track down well-established trafficking conduits and promise money to victims to keep their work status a secret, impeding efforts by law enforcement to build a case against them for lack of sufficient evidence.
It also must be noted that trafficking networks are often wealthy and feed off bureaucracies in areas where money trumps legality. Most aspects of trafficking are also mobile, making it expensive for police to track down all components of a single trafficking cycle. Because of this fundamental problem, IOM set out to identify what the region specific components of the total trafficking cycle are and, by identifying them, also determine which features of this cycle are stable enough to build solid cases towards trying solid crimes.
This distinction is important simply because a whole range of Indonesian laws are broken when trafficking related crimes are committed. Identity protection laws, child protection laws, labor laws, unlawful containment of employees or citizens and archaic Dutch legal laws against slavery are all applicable to crimes where a total trafficking cycle has been documented, verified and witnessed by participants involved in the trafficking process.